Viscount Model Rolls razor in simulated leather case circa s. It seems that no one could bear to throw away a Rolls Razor. That must be why there are so many of these British made safety razors still around. There were 25 for sale on the eBay auction the last time we checked. These razors are sometimes described as made by the Rolls-Royce company. Not so, but the name was undoubtedly chosen to evoke the “Rolls” image of luxury and quality.
After this date, it was an offence to sell any precious metal without the appropriate hallmarks. Buyers of silver products made in the UK should therefore notice several different hallmarks stamped into the surface of the pieces they are buying. Hallmarks are required on all pieces of silver and precious metal including jewellery.
These hallmarks tell buyers something about the purity of the silver, when the piece was manufactured and who manufactured it. It is now illegal in most countries to sell commercial silver without the appropriate hallmarks.
The history of this foundry is well documented [1,2,3]. The first foundry was commercially more successful, while the second one was using a more advanced technology of galvanic silver deposition, which was first applied in Esslingen by the German chemist Carl Haegele in , the brother-in-law of Alfred Ritter. In the same year the Esslingen factory was dismantled and its equipment was incorporated into the Geislingen foundry. During the next thirty years WMF experienced a period of rapid expansion, which lasted until the beginning of the World War in This WMF branch was mostly importing the base-metal items from Geislingen, performing silver-plating and then selling them in Russia under their own marks, see my recent article in ASCAS Newsletter .
This firm like R. Plewkiewicz company would stay under WMF until and would also produce items under its own mark. The export of silver-plated table ware and domestic items continuously grew, which is testified by the publishing of WMF catalogues in three languages. Three consecutive editions of the English WMF catalogue were published in , and in
Sheffield Plate is a cheaper substitute for sterling, produced by fusing sheets of silver to the top and bottom of a sheet of copper or base metal. This ‘silver sandwich’ was then worked into finished pieces. At first it was only put on one side and later was on top and bottom.
This is intended to introduce Pewter Marks to casual or recent collectors. This is not comprehensive, or definitive and may only lead the reader to ask for better guidance – and some attempt to find that for the reader will be given later.
Dating The dating of Lydian Lion coins is “the most challenging question in ancient Greek numismatic scholarship,” according to Nicholas Cahill and John H. Alyattes was the father of Kroisos Croesus , the Lydian king of legendary wealth who was likely the first to strike coins of pure gold and silver. Alyattes is infrequently referred to as Alyattes II. One well-respected ancient coin auction house recently changed its attributions of these coins to Alyattes II, and a few other auction houses and dealers have since followed suit.
Wikipedia uses “Alyattes II,” based on the online Encyclopaedia of the Orient , though this online work provides no references. This may have been the source used by the online Encyclopaedia of the Orient as well. It’s likely that Classical Dictionary based it usage on ancient epigraphs or on works whose usage was based on ancient epigraphs, epigraphs being lists of kings on clay tablets and other media.
According to the epigraphic tradition,, “Alyattes I” was an earlier king of Lydia, during the eighth century BC, and part of the Tylonid dynasty.
As we will see, these marks tell us a great deal of information about the item upon which they are found, including the year it was made and who made it. This hallmarking system, coupled with the high quality and prolific output of the British silversmiths has made British silver the most collected silver in the world. To understand the history of the British hallmarking system, you have to start with the close connection between silver and money.
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Many new comers to the world of collecting Silver often become confused with the large variety of markings on Silver Items. The new collector should focus first on trying to identify whether the item is in fact a Silver Item. Since the 16th century there have been various methods of coating a base metal with Silver or Gold. The first being Mercury or fire plating where a base metal was heated in a furnace and a solution of mercury and silver was applied and the item re heated. The Mercury evaporated and left the Silver coating.
There followed other methods such as coating an object with tin and then a thin film of silver was laid onto the top of the tin. This was heated to a exact temperature until the tin fused with the silver. This was referred to as Close Plating. Finding objects made from either method today would be very difficult as few survive. This method consisted of a process where a thin sheet of silver was fused by heat to a much thicker copper ingot. The two metals then acted as one and could be rolled and shaped.
Bolsolver quickly realised these items looked exactly like a Silver item but could be made at a fraction of the cost. This coincided with the expanding middle class in British Society who could not afford solid silver items but bought large quantities of Silver Plate.
History[ edit ] The material was accidentally invented by Thomas Boulsover , of Sheffield’s Cutlers Company , in While trying to repair the handle of a customer’s decorative knife, he heated it too much and the silver started to melt. When he examined the damaged handle, he noticed that the silver and copper had fused together very strongly. Experiments showed that the two metals behaved as one when he tried to reshape them, even though he could clearly see the two different layers.
Boulsover set up in business, funded by Strelley Pegge of Beauchief , and carried out further experiments in which he put a thin sheet of silver on a thick ingot of copper and heated the two together to fuse them. When the composite block was hammered or rolled to make it thinner, the two metals were reduced in thickness at similar rates.
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Flatware, especially that used by most people when they eat informally, is usually made of stainless steel , not silver. In its narrowest sense, “silverware,” which includes eating utensils, serving dishes, and decorative items, is made either of sterling silver— parts silver to 75 parts another metal, perhaps copper—or has layers of silver plated over another metal, often nickel silver. The more layers, the better the quality, and buyers are cautioned that flatware will be more durable and worth having if it is at least triple plate.
Some manufacturers put extra silver on pieces at the point of most wear, for example, on the back of the bowl of a spoon, where it rests on the table. Of the three pieces of cutlery used by most often by Westerners for eating, the knife was the first utensil. Because early humans were hunters and scavengers and ate meat when they could get it, knives—made of flint or obsidian—were necessary both for cutting meat away from the bone of a kill and for cutting it into manageable pieces for carrying it back to the campsite and for eating.
Gradually, as metallurgy developed, knives were made of bronze, iron, and, finally, steel. From the earliest times until well into the Middle Ages , knives were used for hunting and personal protection, and men always carried them. Because no utensils were provided with meals at the inns and taverns at that time, travelers used their own knives, which they also kept on the table in case they were attacked. Later, inns began to supply knives with the food they served. Early spoons, used for eating liquids, were made of wood.
Shells with attached wooden handles were also used fashioned as spoons. Metal spoons, when they began to be used, were made from the same metal used to make knives of the era.
Only three Austrian thimble makers are known: Holland Between and small articles were marked with a dagger as an indication of fineness Items of lower silver content are marked Z Many thimbles found in Holland will have been imported and thus have a Dutch import mark. Tax paid marks were abolished in Some inexpensive modern Dutch thimbles are marked on their tops.
Clock given to W. B. Stone on the British Queen I have a clock that has a plate that states it was presented to Mr. and Mrs. W. B. Stone on the British Queen by friends and customers in .
A classic French interpretation of the ribbed Rattail feature. It was created in and accentuates the strength of the continental shape. Available in; Stainless steel,Silver Plate A timeless classic art nouveau shape of fine proportions with a simple thread giving a pleasing plain design. Silver Plate, Sterling Silver A design from the start of the 19th Century believed to be inspired by the baroque curves on the furniture of designer Thomas Chippendale.
Available in; Stainless Steel, Silver Plate,Sterling silver An English outline with double reed and crosses decoration and flame at the head. Available in; Silver plate, Sterling Silver A simple classical style with bevelled edge and angled corners. Available in; Stainless steel, Silver Plate, Sterling silver Designed in the , a well known design which has been copied worldwide. Pulling in with a single line border and simple scroll at the handle tip. It dates from around and was heavily influenced by the decor and ornamentation of the period.
Available in; Silver Plate, Sterling Silver Originally dating from , this classic yet simple design has stood the test of time and to this day remains very popular and shines within a traditional or more modern table setting.
Description[ edit ] Collodion process, mostly synonymous with the “collodion wet plate process”, requires the photographic material to be coated, sensitized, exposed and developed within the span of about fifteen minutes, necessitating a portable darkroom for use in the field. Collodion is normally used in its wet form, but can also be used in humid “preserved” or dry form, at the cost of greatly increased exposure time.
The latter made the dry form unsuitable for the usual portraiture work of most professional photographers of the 19th century.
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The door was centrally located on the eaves side of the building. The barn was organized in a three bay system with a central threshing floor and two equal size bays on either side. The barn was generally sited so that the left side of the building faced toward the warmer south or east as this was the bay customarily used to stable livestock. This orientation assisted in keeping the animals warmer in the winter and assured that the manure pile created on that side of the building had the benefit of spring sun to melt it in time for spring planting.
Above the animal stalls a hay loft was constructed of boards sufficient to support the hay but loose enough to permit ventilation of the hay from below. The bay on the other side of the threshing floor was used for the storage of hay, grain and other fodder.